The Government of Tanzania views tourism as a significant industry in terms of job creation, poverty alleviation, and foreign exchange earnings. In 2001, the tourism sector accounted for about 16% of the GDP and nearly 25% of total export earnings (MNRT 2005). Moreover, it directly supported 156,050

There are five broad categories of water use in Tanzania: domestic consumption (including home gardens), industry (including mining and coal-fired electricity generation), hydroelectric power generation, irrigated agriculture, and the maintenance of aquatic ecosystems. In addition, aquatic

Coral reefs are among the most productive and biologically diverse ecosystems. They provide goods such as seafood and reef mining, and services like recreational possibilities, coastal protection, as well as aesthetic and cultural benefits. Coral reefs serve as physical buffer for oceanic currents

Wetlands in Tanzania, including mangroves, support a range of ecosystem services, harboring over 654 associated species, such as mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and fish (Payet and Obura 2004). Wetlands and mangroves are also an important source of food and materials, and are used by the local

The forest ecosystem of the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) is one of 25 global biodiversity ‘Hot Spots’. One quarter of the EAM plant species are endemic, which constitutes about 60% of all endemic species of Tanzania (NEMC 2006). The forest provides about 40% of the total household consumption of

Tanzania hosts a variety of ecosystems, including mountain, drylands, wetlands, coastal and marine ecosystems, many of which are trans-boundary (e.g. the Lake Tanganyika ecosystem, which is shared between four countries). These ecosystems directly support the livelihoods of many Tanzanians and much